This website contains other cold fusion items.
Click to see the list of links

Cold Fusion, hot and cold

This unit is the summary of what I read from a paper of CMNR researchers, A. Meulenberg and K.P. Sinha (both from Malaysia). Their paper, entitled " Extensions to Physics: Low-EnergyNuclear Reactions," has been presented at the most recent "International Conference on Cold Fusion" (ICCF17) in Korea (September, 2012). That paper prompted me to post the following two messages, on the private Internet forum for CMNR researchers.

Message 1(9/18/2012):
1) Suppose two 2H (whose combined atomic mass is 2*2.01410=4.0282 u) fuse to form one 4He (atomic mass of 4.00226 u). The excitation energy of the "compound" 4He becomes 24 MeV, as calculated with the E=m*c^2 formula. This is trivial. Why are the quotation marks? Because the name compound nucleus is used only for much heavier structures (A>30). Which name would be more appropriate? In any case, the name has nothing to do with the question about the distribution of energy.
2) One possibility is that most of the released 24 MeV becomes the kinetic energy of one neutron, while the kinetic energy of the remaining 3He structure is negligible, or vice versa. Another possibility is that most of the released 24 MeV becomes the kinetic energy of one proton, while the kinetic energy of the remaining 3H structure is negligible, or vice versa. And what about a possibility that the pp and nn (structures inside the excited 4He) share equal amounts of energy among them? These temporary structures can be called biproton (2He) and bineutron. Such speculations are triggered by reading one of the papers written by Akito Takahashi.
3) And here is another question; it has to do with hot fusion. The probability of the 3He+n decomposition and the probability of the 3H+p decomposition (of the excited 4He) are practically identical. This is a well-known experimental fact. How can it be explained?

Message 2 (9/20/2012)
Below is a diagram that I have in mind while thinking about the D+D fusion, either hot or cold. The thick line A refers to combined mass of two neutrons and two protons. Likewise, the thick line B represents the combined mass of two deuterons. It is easy to verify, by using a table of atomic masses, that B is smaller than A. That is why the line B is below the line A.

The line C represents the combined mass of one neutron and one unexcited He-3 (ground state). It is easy to verify that C is smaller than B. That is why the C line is lower than B. Likewise, the line D refers to the combined mass of one neutron and one tritium, also in the unexcited (ground) state. It is easy to verify ...; that is why the line D is below the line C. And, as you probably guess, the line E represents the mass of He-4, in the ground state. As I demonstrated yesterday, the rest mass E is by nearly 24 MeV smaller than the rest mass B.


The thin horizontal lines refer to excited states of corresponding nuclei, He-4, He-3 and H-3, respectively. Fusion of two slow deuterons produces He-4 in the excited state; the level of that state is the same as the level of B, or slightly higher (when the kinetic energy of fusing deuterons is not negligible).

The arrows show what is energetically allowed. One possibility is emission of one neutron and one He-3 nucleus, either in the ground or excited state. Another possibility is emission of one proton and the H-3, either in the ground state or in the excited state. The third energetically allowed decomposition of the excited He-4, is emission of one or several (Andrew calls it a cascade) photons. Evaporation of two neutrons and two protons from the He-4 compound nucleus, on the other hand, is energetically impossible, unless the kinetic energy of fusing deuterons is larger than the difference between the A and B levels.

The nuclear "ash" associated with emission of a single neutron is He-3, the nuclear "ash" associated with emission of a single proton is H3, and the nuclear "ash" associated with the emission of photons is He-4. It is interesting that the maximum "energetically-possible" energy released via the photon de-excitation is much higher than the maximum "energetically possible" energy released via the n or p channels.

The p and n channels, as we know, are dominant in hot fusion but not in cold fusion. Why is ir so? This is one of the puzzles to be solved. Another puzzle has to do with the reported accumulation of the He-4 ash, in cold fusion. Why is it not accompanied be emission of the matching number of high energy photons?

Feel free to use this post in any way you wish. But be aware that vertical distances between the horizontal lines, in my illustration, are not drawn according to energies calculated from known masses of atomic nuclei. The same applies to excitaion energy levels; their numbers and locations, for three nuclei, are not realistic.

This website contains other cold fusion items.
Click to see the list of links