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230) Two Russian papers

Ludwik Kowalski (6/20/05)
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043




1) Please be aware that my unit #229 now has two added sections, at the end. They were not there when the unit was posted, several days ago.

2) It seems to me that we really need a forum for discussion, among cold fusion researchers. Unfortunately, the discussion list of ISCMNS, promised at ICCF11, did not materialize. And what happened to the online journal promised one year earlier? Let me make a suggestion. I have an idle discussion list at the university server; it can become a forum we need. To be a participant simply send me a private message whose subject line should say: “Discussion of CF.” The first line (in the body of the message) should show your name (first, then last) followed by the e-mail address. The next line (or lines) should say why you consider yourself to be a cold fusion researcher. Participation in at least one of the ICCF* conference, for example, is a sufficient reason, as far as I am concerned. My e-mail address is <kowalskil@mail.montclair.edu>. The list will be activated as soon as the number of participants exceeds 20. Please, send this invitation to serious CF researchers you know; not everybody will see it here. Cut this paragraph and paste it into messages you sent.

3) Today I received two Russian papers from one of the readers. They seem to be related to the device invented by Koldamasov and Yang. (see units #216, #226 and #229). These papers prompted me to start this unit. I will try to translate them and make some comments. The copies of pages mailed to me do not identify the place of publication. But the sender wrote that the papers were “published in 2001, following the 2000 Sochi conference.”

Paper 1: Studying of thermal and radiation effects in Koldamasov’s cell;” by D.S. Baranov.

Paper 2: An experimental setup based on Koldamasov’s cell;” by A.P. Andreev, D.S. Baranov, A.K. Molodov, A.K. Pokrovski and N.N Sikavatkin.

The authors of these papers are from Moscow ( Scientific Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Science, and MRTI (?)).

Translation of sections from Paper #2
Abstract: A temperature increase of short duration was observed in Koldamasov’s cell when heavy water was locally added to the working fluid. The temperature did not changed when ordinary water was added, under analogous conditions. Adding lithium chloride to water resulted in registration of radiation in the scintillation detector.

This study was undertaken to reproduce previously reported results (1,2) and to enlarge the scope of a more recent investigation (3). The central element of that installation, the Koldamasov cell, was made from the transparent organic glass. Bright glowing discharge (plasmoid) was observed in front of the opening in the insertion when cavitation was taking place. The insertion changes the cross section, available to the fluid, by two orders of magnitude. Pressures in cell were changed in the range of 10-40 atmospheres at the frequency of ~1000 Hz.

The working fluid was oil whose temperature was ~33 C. At that temperature the viscosity of heavy water exceeds the viscosity of ordinary water by ~20%. This, however, could not lead to a significant increase of friction (resulting from addition of heavy water) because the viscosity of oil is ~20 times higher than that of water. Sensitive calorimeters were used to measure difference in temperatures between the input and output of the cell. The electrical diagram is shown in Figure 1. It is essentially a Wheatstone bridge in which R1 and R2 are thermistors. Medical injectors were used to introduce heavy or ordinary water at the entrance of the pump. The injected volume was one cubic centimeter and the time of each injection was ~10 seconds. The time was sufficiently long to mix the injected water with ~ 1000 cubic centimeters of oil.

In the first experiment heavy water was injected first and ordinary water was injected later. In the second experiment ordinary water was injected before heavy water. Figure 2 shows that differences in temperature occurred after injections of heavy water only. [In that figure changes in difference of temperatures are expressed in volts but the bridge was calibrated]. According to calibrations, changes shown in Figure 2 were the same as from the injection of one cubic centimeter of water at 100C. Trying to optimize generation of excess heat one observed cases in which no excess heat was generated and cases when changes in temperatures were sufficiently high to melt ftoroploast insertions. Destruction of the insertion was observed three times, but only when oil was mixed with several cubic centimeters of heavy water. Insertions were never destroyed when oil contained no heavy water (even at much higher temperatures and pressures).

Radiation emitted by the cell was measured by using a 5 cm by 5 cm cylindrical NaI detector. The detector was ~8 cm from the insertion. Radiation entering the detector had to pass through an aluminum foil of 0.5 mm, 5 cm of organic glass and a 5 mm layer of ftoroplast. [In other words it consists of gamma rays.] The setup was calibrated by using the annihilation line (511 keV) and a sodium line of 1460 keV. The multichannel analyzer spectra are shown in Figure 3. . . . [The background does not change significantly when the motor of the pump is turned on to off. A significant above-the-background component appears (in the gamma ray energies up to 250 keV) after 0.8 cubic centimeters of the water solution of lithium chloride, concentration 4 N, is injected into oil. The conclusion is:] Radiation measurements and temperature effects due to heavy water are with Koldamasov’s findings and show that nuclear processes do take place in the cell.

[I am certain that scientists who prepared the last week demonstration in Emonson did not miss an opportunity to show, using a widely available detector, that gamma rays are indeed emitted from their setup. The setup generating excess heat at the rate of 10 MW must be much larger than the setup used by Baranov. When will the results of the last week demonstration be announced?]

References:
1. A. I. Koldamasov “Nuclear fusion in the field of electrical discharge;” 1995 Sochi conference report.
2. A.I. Koldamasov “Nuclear reactor;” Patent of Russian Federation #2152083

3. A.P. Andreev et al. (see paper 3 below).

Translation of sections from Paper #1
Abstract: A compact experimental setup, analogous to that described by Koldamasov (1,2), was built. It shows that stable glowing discharge (plasmoid) is produced in the liquid under the influence of cavitation. [Does this mean that what was called “cavitational emission,” in unit #229, stands for sonoluminescence?]

According to (1,2) a new approach approach is possible to generate thermonuclear energy. An independent confirmation of this could lead to a broad investigation of that approach. Direct confirmation of Koldamasov’ work is difficult because the working fluid in his device was pure (double distillation) dielectric water. The reason is simple; the dielectric properties of pure water change drastically after it passes through the cell. Changed water must be purified before it can be reused.

In this investigation we tried to use a different working fluid -- organic oil. Dielectric properties of oil are more favorable but that substance is about 20 times more viscous than water. We were able to find conditions under which bright glow discharge (plasmoid) is formed in oil. The diagram of the setup is shown in Figure 1. [I shows a loop in which oil is forced to circulate under pulsating pressure. Numerous technical details (pump rpm, pressures, frequenOcies, etc. are provided. A set of three dots in the part of the article that I decided not to translate. Set of three dots below stand for was not translated] . . . The central element of that installation, the Koldamasov cell, was made from the transparent organic glass. It has a dielectric insertion with a narrow opening (cross section being 100 times smaller that in the tube through which the oil is supplied to the cell). Stable glowing discharge was observed at the entrance of insertions made from organic glass, ftoroplast and polysterol. It was observed when the insertion was made from vinoplast. Ftoroplast turned out to be the most effective when the pressure was ~30 atm. Appearance of plasmoid must be due to cavitation. . . . Characteristic speed of the fluid through the insertion opening (radius 0.5 mm) was 50 m/s. . . .~

The total volume of working fluid was ~6 liters. It is remarkable that oil was not spoiled during its prolonged (`10 hours) circulation through the loop. An attempt to use less fluid liquid, a mixture oil and kerosine, also resulted in formation of plasmoid. But the pump deteriorated rapidly when that fluid was used. The setup is sufficiently compact to be used in practical applications.

References:
1. A. I. Koldamasov “Nuclear fusion in the field of electrical discharge;” 1995 Sochi conference report.
2. A.I. Koldamasov “Nuclear reactor;” Patent of Russian Federation #2152083

4) Post scriptum:
This piece shows how main players of the company were described in the 5/23/05 “news and information” section of PRNews <http://sev.prnewswire.com>. The title of the article was
Esteemed Quantum Energy Physicists Dr. Hyunik Yang and Dr. Nahm Cho Arrive in Edmonton.” They will certainly become famous if the company’s offerings (“Direct Electrical Power Generation, low-cost Hydrogen Generation and low-cost Heat Generation, all three of which were developed by Dr. Yang”),turn into commercially successful technology.

Innovative Energy Solutions, Inc. (iESi) today announced the arrival of the Company's co-founder and Chief Technical Officer, Hyunik Yang, Ph.D. and Dr. Nahm Cho in Sherwood Park, Alberta, just southeast of Edmonton. The recent relocation of Dr. Yang and Dr. Cho should expedite the efforts that are already well underway on the Direct Electrical Power, Heat and Hydrogen Generation units and allow the Company's team of scientists to advance the impressive work they accomplished for iESi while in South Korea. "Much of iESi's proprietary intellectual property is based on the research in the field of quantum energy generation authored by Dr. Yang," said Patrick Cochrane, CEO, iESi. . . .

In his career, Dr. Yang has also held positions as professor at Hanyang University and as senior research engineer at Hyundai Electronics. Dr. Yang has designed several new inventions in the field of quantum energy and cold fusion. Dr. Yang received his Engineering B.S. from Hanyang University in South Korea, and completed his Engineering M.S., Ph.D. and post-doctoral work at Columbia University in New York. He is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Society of Automobile Engineers, Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Russian Academy of Natural Science, Korean CAD/CAM Society and the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers. Since 1997, Dr. Yang has been listed in the Who's Who in the World, and in the Who's Who in Science and Engineering since 1998.

Dr. Cho also held positions as professor at Hanyang University. Dr. Cho is the author of four patents in South Korea and is an expert in the field of Nuclear Transmutation and Fusion. Dr. Cho received his Precision Mechanical Engineering B.S. and M.S. from Hanyang University in South Korea, and completed his Ph.D at the Tokyo Institute of Technology. He is a member of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Japan Society of Precision Engineers, Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, Korean Society of Precision Mechanical Engineers, Korean Society of Manufacturing Engineers and the Micro Biochip Center.


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