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141) A paper from Dubna in Russia

Ludwik Kowalski (5/7/04)
Department of Mathematical Sciences
Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ, 07043


About a month ago I sent an e-mail message to a large number of cold fusion researchers in Europe. It was about the pending reevaluation of cold fusion by the DEO. F.A. Gareev read my message. On April 28, 2004 he wrote to me: “Dear Professor Ludwik Kowalski, Thank you very much for extremely important information about cold fusion. I was involved in this field starting from 1989 when information we get in NBI in Copenhagen where I spend some few years. I now nearly finished review about cold transmutation in Russia in russian and some my mechanisms cold transmutation. If you are able to read in russian I will be happy send for you my review paper and 2 original one. So give me your usual mail address. Professor of Physics, Gareev Fangil A.”

The copy of the paper, published in 2003 (in “Geoinformatica, #1, p 51), arrived this morning. What follows is my translation of the first two and of the last sections. I do not want to translate the main section of the article because I am not familiar with that field of theoretical physics. The e-mail of the first author is gareev@thsun1.jinr.ru

P.S.
On May 11, 2004, he sent me a much longer paper (also in Russian) entitled “Influence of excitation and ionization of the atoms on the velocity of nuclear processes at low energies.” This 47-pages-long paper contains 246 references. The authors are: F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova and Yu.L. Ratis. In the summary they write: “ We have concluded that cold transmutation of nuclei is possible in the framework of the modern physical theory excitation and ionization of atoms and universal resonance synchro-nization principle are responsible for it. Investigation of this phenomenon requires knowledge of different branches of science: nuclear and atomic physics, chemistry and electrochemistry, condensed matter and solid state physics,... The results of this research field can provide a new source of energy, substances and technologies.”

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Mechanism of cold transmutation of chemical elements


F.A. Gareev, G.F. Gareev, I E. Zhidkova
Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia

1. Introduction

Several publications describing low energy transmutations of atomic nuclei appeared recently. Such transmutations have been observed in electric explosions of thin metallic foils in liquids (1), in water solutions of salts exposed to ultrasound (2), in melting of zirconium (in a vacuum) by bombarding it with electrons (3), and in lead traversed by high electric current in a strong magnetic field (4). Neutrons were observed during electroacustical cavitation (5). It is significant to emphasize that cold transmutations of atomic nuclei consist an exothermic reactions in which the released energies (MeVs) exceed the interaction energies (eVs and keVs) by 4 to 6 orders of magnitude. No gamma rays or alpha particles are emitted in these reactions. Theoretical objection against cold transmutations of atomic nuclei are based on “missing protons,” on low penetrability of Coulomb barriers, and on the absence of nuclear particles. The purpose of this work is to show how the unexpected nuclear processes can be explained in terms of resonance synchronization and resonant tunneling.

2. Mechanism of cold transmutations
Transmutation reactions must be isothermic because external influences causing them are weak. The energy must be conserved; the released energies are due to mass differences between the input and output channels. The “missing protons” objection can be removed by assuming that changes in Z are due to weak interactions:


A(Z,N) + n*e- -->Z(Z-n,N) + nne’
and

A(Z,N) -->Z(Z+n,N) + ne- + nne”

where n is the number of leptons. Note that ‘ and “ refer neutrinos and antineutrinos, respectively. Probabilities of such interactions are extremely low and an amplifying mechanism must exist to make them observable. Such mechanism exists: it is the universal principle of resonant synchronization (7,8,9,10) and of resonant tunneling (11).

3. Principle of resonant synchronization

4. Conclusions
To summarize let us say that resonance synchronization and resonance tunneling amplify weak, acoustical and electromagnetic processes to such extent that cold transmutations of atomic nuclei become possible, at least in principle. Resonant amplification of the rate of transmutation depends only on the frequency of external interactions, it does not depend on the nature of these interactions. In recent experiments

In recent experiments large clusters of 100 to 1,000,000 atoms were observed to interact with laser beam pulses of very short duration. Energies of ions emitted from such clusters were shown to increase with sizes of clusters. In some cases atomic nuclei emitted ions whose energies approaching 1 MeV; such energies are sufficiently large to produce fusion. According to (18), for example, the D(D,n)3He reaction does take place when deuterium clusters interact with ultraist laser pulses. The authors concluded that the cross section of that fusion reaction increases rapidly with the size of the cluster.

The mechanism of cold transmutations consists of resonant amplification of reaction rates resulting from synchronized external interactions and from formation of large nuclear clusters. This can easily be verified by performing relatively simple and inexpensive experiments. The way is open for production of new chemical elements, and for generation of energy from radioactive waste. It turns out that different kinds of external interactions lead to similar results, as far as cold transmutations are concerned.

5. References

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